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Steps for Process-related Risk Assessment in the Plastic Toys Industry

7 min read
  1. Understand the process flow on how to manufacture the product.
  2. Identify the hazards from its process step (task).
  3. Decide who might be harmed and how.
  4. Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions.
  5. Record your findings and implement them 6. Review your assessment and update if necessary.

Plastic Toys Production Process Flow:

Fig: process flow of toys production

Types of Materials used for Injection Molding

SL.Material nameDescriptionApplications
1AcetalStrong, rigid, excellent fatigue resistance, excellent creep resistance, chemical resistance, moisture resistance, naturally
opaque white, low/medium cost
Bearings, cams, gears, handles, plumbing components, rollers, rotors, slide guides, valves
2AcrylicRigid, brittle, scratch resistant, transparent,
optical clarity, low/medium cost
Display stands, knobs, lenses, light housings, panels, reflectors, signs, shelves, trays
3Acrylonitrile Butadiene StyreneStrong, flexible, low mold shrinkage (tight
tolerances), chemical resistance, electroplating capability, naturally opaque,
low/medium cost
Automotive (consoles, panels, trim, vents), boxes, gauges, housings, inhalers, toys
4Cellulose AcetateTough, transparent, high costHandles, eyeglass frames
5Polyamide 6 (Nylon)High strength, fatigue resistance, chemical resistance, low creep, low friction, almost opaque/white, medium/high costBearings, bushings, gears, rollers, wheels
6Polyamide 6/6 (Nylon)High strength, fatigue resistance, chemical resistance, low creep, low friction, almost opaque/white, medium/high costHandles, levers, small housings, zip ties
7Polyamide 11+12 (Nylon)High strength, fatigue resistance, chemical resistance, low creep, low friction, almost opaque to clear, very high costAir filters, eyeglass frames, safety masks
8PolycarbonateVery tough, temperature resistance, dimensional stability, transparent, high costAutomotive (panels, lenses, consoles), bottles, containers, housings, light covers, reflectors, safety helmets, and shields
9Polyester – ThermoplasticRigid, heat resistance, chemical resistance, medium/high costAutomotive (filters, handles, pumps), bearings, cams, electrical components (connectors, sensors), gears, housings, rollers, switches, valves
10Polyether Tough, very high chemical resistance, clear, very high-cost SulphoneValves
11PolyetheretherketoneStrong, thermal stability, chemical resistance, abrasion resistance, low moisture absorptionAircraft components, electrical connectors, pump impellers, seals
12PolyetherimideHeat resistance, flame resistance, transparent (amber color)Electrical components (connectors, boards, switches), covers, shields, surgical tools
13Polyethylene – Low DensityLightweight, tough and flexible, excellent chemical resistance, natural waxy appearance, low costKitchenware, housings, covers, and containers
14Polyethylene – High DensityTough and stiff, excellent chemical resistance, natural waxy appearance, low cost Chair seats, housings, covers, and containers
15Polyphenylene OxideTough, heat resistance, flame resistance, dimensional stability, low water absorption, electroplating capability, high costAutomotive (housings, panels), electrical components, housings, plumbing components
16Polyphenylene SulphideVery high strength, heat resistance, brown, very high costBearings, covers, fuel system components, guides, switches, and shields
17PolypropyleneLightweight, heat resistance, high chemical resistance, scratch resistance, natural waxy appearance, tough and stiff, low cost.
Automotive (bumpers, covers, trim), bottles, caps, crates, handles, housings
18Polystyrene – General purposeBrittle, transparent, low cost Cosmetics packaging, pens
19Polystyrene – High impactImpact strength, rigidity, toughness, dimensional stability, naturally translucent, low cost
Electronic housings, food containers, toys
20Polyvinyl Chloride – PlasticisedTough, flexible, flame resistant, transparent or opaque, low costElectrical insulation, housewares, medical tubing, shoe soles, toys
21Polyvinyl Chloride – RigidTough, flexible, flame resistant, transparent or opaque, low cost Outdoor applications (drains, fittings, gutters)
22Styrene AcrylonitrileStiff, brittle, chemical resistance, heat resistance, hydrolytically stable, transparent, low costHousewares, knobs, syringes
23Thermoplastic Tough, flexible, high-cost Bushings, electrical componentsElastomer/Rubber ts, seals, washers
Table: different materials types for injection molding

Plastic Toys production process: Common EHS Hazards

ProcessCommon EHS HazardsRecommendation
1. Raw materials storage
(mainly plastic resin)
Exposure of hazardous works affecting the occupational health of employees – skin sensitizing exposure of plastic resins (if uncured resins) after prolonged contact from the inventory of raw materials storage (HS001)Regular medical surveillance for employees who are exposed to hazardous work (i.e., skin / respiratory contact of plastic resins (if uncured resins) from the inventory of raw materials storage) at the factory’s expense. (HS001-CM001)
Hazardous source control by engineering methods – e.g., good ventilation in the raw materials storage area as prolonged skin sensitizing contact of a lot of plastic resins (if uncured resins) during incoming / transferring raw material bags from off-site for further production and administration measures – e.g., job rotation/shift work to reduce the exposure time of the hazardous working environment – uncured resin (in conjunction with many solvents) environment (HS001-CM002)
Provision and use of proper PPE (i.e., protective clothing, dust filtering face mask & safety goggles for skin/respiratory hazard) but do not just depend on it – remove exposure first (HS001-CM003).
Exposure to dangerous work affects the occupational health & safety of employees
(HS002)
Fall from elevated platform / stacked raw materials when material lifting/manual
handling
Unsafe use of forklift trucks / hand-held pallet jack
Improper handling of materials
Ergonomics hazards
Slip, trip & falls
Proper use of the on-site personal protective equipment and safe working
methods for working at height, forklift safety, manual lifting & material handling
and prevention of slips, trips & falls (HS002-CM001)
Adequate training and supervision for safe work practices for workers exposed
to occupational hazards from dangerous work activities (HS002-CM002).
Unsafe working conditions of electrical plugs, extension cords, and faulty electrical wiring
causing an immediate fire hazard, electrical hazards from electrical shock, and electrocution
(HS006).
Proper insulation of electrical plugs, cords, and wiring (HS006-CM001).
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) protection and weatherproof enclosure
are required for all outlets in wet and damp locations (HS006-CM002).
Earth Continuity Connector (ECC) connection for powered hand tools and
machinery – e.g., electrical forklift, forklift re-charger, etc (HS006-CM003).
Exposed, impaired, and frayed electrical wiring causing an immediate fire hazards, electrical
hazards from electrical shock and electrocution (HS007)
All electrical wiring are in good condition and that all fuses and circuit breakers
are of the correct rating (HS007-CM001).
Overloaded electrical circuits and damaged switches/electrical panel causing immediate
fire hazard, electrical hazards from electrical shock and electrocution (HS008)
All electrical panels / system are operated within legal electrical capacity
loading limit (HS008-CM001).
All distribution panels, breakers, switches and junction boxes are completely
enclosed and protected from dust, vermin and wet conditions (HS008-CM002).
Circuit protection devices should not be bypassed to effectively limit or stop the
flow of current, fuses, circuit breakers (e.g., MCCB – Molded Case Circuit
Breaker, MCB – Miniature Circuit Breaker, ELCB – Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker,
GFCI – Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter) are common devices to detect a fault
condition that could represent a potential electrical shock hazard due to short
circuit or overloading (HS008-CM003).
Overload outlets and branch circuits due to misused extension cords and multiple power
strips causing immediate fire hazard, electrical hazards from electrical shock and
electrocution (HS009)
Extension cords should never be left coiled up to damage insulation due to
inductive heating (HS009-CM001).
Ineffective & inadequate means of fire detection (HS012)Installation of effective and adequate fire detection system / devices – e.g., fire
alarmsystem, smoke/heat detector (HS012-CM001).
Inadequate warning signage and floor marking for fire evacuation (HS013)Adequate posting of warning signage and floor marking for fire evacuation at
raw materials storage area (HS013-CM001).
Obstructed / unsafe means of escape (HS014)All escape routes (i.e., stairways, aisles & main access/egress from raw
material storage areas) are easily identifiable, free from obstructions, and clearly
illuminated during normal or emergency situations (HS014-CM001).
Inadequate and/or malfunctioning firefighting equipment (HS017)Provision and maintenance of adequate firefighting equipment for sustainable
compliance (HS017-CM001).
Inadequate and/or malfunctioning emergency exits including emergency lights who are
part of the emergency exit installation (HS018)
Adequate installation and maintenance of sufficient emergency exits in pair
with emergency lights for sustainable compliance (HS018-CM001).
Inadequate automatic fire suppression system in high risk areas – raw material storage
warehouse for plastic resins (HS019)
Adequate installation and maintenance of automatic fire suppression systems
(e.g., automatic sprinkler system) to keep in serviceable condition (HS019-
CM001).
Blocked / locked emergency exits (HS021)Unblock / unlock emergency exits from the raw materials storage area leading
to the designated safe place during fire evacuation (HS021-CM001).
Poor ergonomics of working conditions and equipment (HS024)Ergonomically designed equipment, machines and work station for raw
materials storage – Provision of hand-held pallet jack and forklift truck for raw
materials transfer and storage (HS024-CM001).
Proper manual handling / correct lifting techniques (HS024-CM004)
Automation / Semi-automation for those hands-on, labor intensive storage
activities (HS024-CM005)
Poor housekeeping conditions / practices to create unsafe workplace (HS025)Sustainable Workplace Cleanliness – Non-slip work area floor and raw materials
are cleared of the access paths (HS025-CM001)
Removal of unused materials from the raw materials for storage (HS025-CM003)
Regular workplace inspection forsustainable housekeeping (HS025-CM004)
Proper material stacking to prevent from overhead, falling hazards and store
materials against walls or partitions only in an amount that will not endanger
the stability of the wall or partition (HS025-CM005)
Proper postage of hazard warning signage and floor marking and floor marking
at raw materials storage areas – divert people traffic from the storage areas by
clearly marked paths (HS025-CM006)
Inadequate consumption review of key raw materials and waste generation from packing
(EN001)
Better procurement control of ordering and properly storing the right types and
quantities of raw materials – e.g., raw materials of plastic resins for plastic toys
production, etc. (EN001-CM001).
Reduction program initiatives of resource consumption and waste reduction
(EN001-CM002).
Proper disposal practices of waste materials to reduce environmental impacts
(EN001-CM003).
No proper measurement, monitoring and tracking control of energy consumption from
factory facilities, processes and systems (EN004)
Engagement initiative of LF Energy and Waste Efficiency Project (EN004-CM001)
Process changes and behavioral practices to reduce energy consumption and
use less carbon intensive sources – e.g. turning off lights in unused raw materials
storage areas (EN004-CM002)
Installation of technologies or equipment to reduce energy use – e.g. efficient
lighting, heating and cooling systems, more energy efficient powered material
lifting equipment (EN004-CM003).

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