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Global Industry Technology Information

Garment Sewing Operator Training Program Guideline

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training

sewing-operator-course

Learn how to create a garment sewing operator training module. This training module was developed and tested successfully to take thousands of sewing operators training in different garment and textile manufacturing industries in Bangladesh. This training module fully structured and full of all technical guidelines about garment sewing operator’s long-time training procedure, schedule, practical training guide, technical sewing information, exam process, and others all necessary reporting formats. The step-by-step guide will help garment and textile manufacturers globally to know how to train sewing operators in big industries.

SEWING OPERATOR TRAINING PROGRAM

INDEX

ChapterSubjectDay plan
Chapter – 1Introduction to the company and rules1st day
Chapter-2Introduction to different types of Industrial Sewing machine1st + 2nd day
Chapter-3Introduction of tools and materials used in Garments industry2nd day
Chapter-4Introduction of different parts of single needle lock stitch sewing machine3rd day
Chapter-5Set machine for operation4th day
Chapter-6Basic exercise5th – 7th day
Chapter-7Practice sewing on papers8th-13th day
Chapter-8Perform sewing14th-17th day
Chapter-9Perform sewing in different component18th-21st day
Chapter-10Transfer the sewing component for next operation22nd
Chapter-11Assemble the component23rd-27th day
Chapter-12Machine SOP27th day
Chapter-13Final evaluation28th day
Index of Sewing operator training

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION OF THE COMPANY AND RULES

Name:                                 A Garment and Textile Industry
Establishment:                  1985
Total Operator:                 10000
Divisions:                           
Knitting and Dyeing 
Woven Dyeing 
Printing
Washing 
Garment sewing
Label 
Spinning Mill

Vision: To train a garment manufacturer as the best garment manufacturer in Bangladesh and Globally.

Top Management:          
Managing Director name
Director Name and position
Director Name and position
Director name and position

Main Buyers:      Levis, Nike, Adidas, Eddie Bauer, KHQ, MNS, C&A, Anthropology, Costco, Carters, Walmart, H&M, Tema, Tesco, US Polo, Next, Target, Costco, Mango, S’Oliver, etc. 


Basic responsibilities: 

  • Every operator must have to use a Proximity/Punch card during the entrance/exit period. The operator has to punch his/her own card (No proxy allows to card punch). Never fold punch card and general maintenance of punch card is Operator’s self-responsibility. If Operators lost his/her punch card or, forget to punch during entrance/exit, he/she must have to inform his/her Supervisor immediately to inform Office and will collect a new one(card). Always use an ID card at work.
  • Keep a clean, healthy, beautiful, and safe workplace with self-machine maintenance. 
  • Keep your produced garment neat and clean.
  • Avoid unusual conversations during operation.
  • Working with a sharing mentality.
  • Inform your supervisor of any kind of problems/disambiguates. 
  • Operators have to follow the complaint box procedure to submit any complaint.
  • Always abide by Top Management’s orders/instructions.
  • Keep your joining letter in a safe place.
  • Introduce health and safety officers and take necessary help. 
  • Waste disposal in marked places.
  • Keep a close water tap after using or drinking water.
  • Drink clean and safe water.
  • Keep your toilet clean and flash water after use.

Benefits: 

  • Maintain proper labor law of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh in minimum monthly wages, monthly wages issue time frame, yearly increment according to performance, sick/casual/earn/public holiday/maternity/festival leave, and other benefits. 
  • Health and safety facilities, child care center, separate prayer room for male/female, and available pure drinking water. Full-time MBBS Doctor’s facilities and available trained paramedic doctor for primary treatment. You can contact a paramedic doctor or Medical center for primary treatment.  
  • Take assistance from the Human Resource Department to admit your kid (age<6) to the Child care center. Available Foods facilities for admitted Childs.

Probation period: 

  • The probation period is three months (although depends on the worker’s efficiency). Workers will be promoted as Permanent workers according to productivity and efficiency after a successful probation period. After job permanency, if any worker wants to quit his/her job, then he/she has to provide 60days advance notice/surrender with 60day’s wages to the Human Resource Department for further initiatives.

Leave: 

  • Weekly holiday:     01 days in a week (as labor law)
  • Festival holiday:     ≥ 11 days (with full wages)
  • Earn leave:              10 days in a year (with full wages)
  • Sick leave:                14 days in a year (with full wages)
  • Earn leave:               Activate after 01 year service period. 01 day earn leave will be permitted for 18 working days. This earned leave can be claimed next year. Otherwise, workers will be paid through total unclaimed earned leaves accordingly.
  • Maternity leave: Leave will be applicable during the pregnancy period (08 weeks before the child’s birth and 08 weeks after birth). Maternity leave will be valid after a 06 months successful service period. Workers will be informed immediately to the Medical center for Register enrolling during the primary pregnancy period. 

Leave procedure:

  • Leave forms have to be submitted 01 days before leaving to Supervisor.
  • Inform your immediate Supervisor to leave due to urgency.
  • Medical certificates will be applicable to submit due to Medical leave of more than 02 days.
  • Management has the right to leave approval/change/increase/decrease.

Overtime: 

  • The daily working period is 08 hours. After that period, every working period will be counted as overtime working hours.
  • OT hour wages will be twice of hourly basic. [OT wages= (Basic/208)*2*OT hr.]

Grievance:-

Reason: 

  • Wages rate, overtime, and leave.
  • Lack of planning, employee agreement, and regard for a collective agreement.
  • Non-availability of proper tools, machines, and equipment for doing jobs.
  • Poor relationship with supervisor, the hazardous physical condition of the workplace, and negative approach to discipline.
  • Improper attitude towards work, gambling, and vulgar attitude.
  • Physical, mental, and sexual harassment.
  • A victimization is an object of ridicule and humiliation.

Procedure:

  • If workers have any complaints, he/she has to inform his/her immediate Supervisor/Worker Welfare Officer/Human Resource Department by voice/written.
  • Without any proper solution within 24 hr., the victim will inform the Factory HRD Head.
  • The victim can submit a written complaint in the Complaint Box (The complaint box is attached to the Toilet on every floor).
  • Every worker can discuss with a Worker Welfare Officer anytime he/she needs.
  • Inform the Human resource department immediately to complain about monthly wages (wrong calculation/necessary amendment). 

Suggestions: 

  • Suggestions will be highly appreciated about Quality, productivity, compliance, process control, layout, design, and wastage issues.
  • 1000 taka will be valued for better suggestions.

List of misconduct:

  • Irresponsible to abide by company policy and labor laws.
  • Illegal gratifications give/receive due to take extra benefits.
  •  Habitual late/absent.
  • Stealing/dishonesty/cheating.
  • Destroy/damage company resources.
  • Quarreling/gambling
  • Leave workstation without any permission.
  • Habitual negligence of responsibility.
  • Wrong/false information 
  • Take medicine from the primary aid box without informing the Medical Officer.
  • Take any tools/materials home without informing the factory.
  • Proximity card punch with someone else.
  • Any criminal activities sentenced by the Court.
  • Smoking inside an industrial area.
  • Unlawful strike or insist others to do illegal activities.
  • Employee’s benefits will stop to provide due to job termination for stolen/dishonesty/cheating/gambling/quarreling/others illegal activities.

Key performance indicator:

IndicatorDefinitionGarment Target
Defect hour unit-End lineEnd line defects2%
Defect hour unit-FinishingFinishing defects2%
Defect hour unit-Pre FinalDefects in pre final inspection2%
FTT (First time target)Garment passed through first inspection98%
Cut to ship ratioThe ratio between cut and shipped garment99%
On time deliveryGarment delivery within actual ship date100%
Planned cut dateSelected date for fabric lay cutting 100%
Production start dateStart production as planned date100%
Work in progressCut panel supply as per requirement1 day
Efficiency Ratio of output and input65%
Production achievement Achieve targeted productivity 100%
Man machine ratioRequired manpower requirement ratio per machine. 1.75
Helper per production lineRequirement of helper per lineKnit-4, woven-8
Absenteeism Absent without leave applicationKnit-3%, woven-3%
Migration Permanent leave from job≤ 3%



Skill matrix summary



Workers efficiency assessment information
90%≤A+≤100%80%≤A≤8975%≤B≤79%60%≤C≤74%40%≤D≤59%Unskilled≤40%
Table: Key performance indicator of garment sewing operator

Norms to use of protective equipment: 

  • Everyone must use essential factory protective equipment/tools.
  • Everyone is responsible to maintain protective equipment/tools.

If anyone willingly destroys any protective tools/equipment, then the company will take necessary consequences against fatality.


CHAPTER-2

DIFFERENT TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL SEWING MACHINE

1-needle, Lock stitch Machine
2-needle, Lock stitch Machine
Safety Stitch Machine
Flat-bed, Top and Bottom Cover stitch Machine
Zigzag Stitching
Cylinder-bed, Top and Bottom Cover stitch
Small-cylinder-bed, Top and Bottom Cover stitch
Feed-off-the-arm, Double Chain stitch
Flat-bed, 2-needle Double Chain stitch
4-needle, Feed-off-the-arm, Flat seamers, Top and Bottom Cover stitch
Pinpoint Saddle Stitching
Single-thread, Chain stitch Basting
Feed-off-the-arm, 3-needle Double Chain stitch
Button attaching
Buttonholing
Bar tacking

CHAPTER-3

INTRODUCTION OF TOOLS AND MATERIALS

Information sheet

What are the Tools used in a Garment factory:

Different types of tools are used in the garment industry to reduce the mechanical problem of sewing machines, to make garments from different types of pattern, and prepare the sewing machine to sew different types of garment.

Measuring tools: Use to make patterns and measure garments. Example- Measurement tape, Scale etc.

Cutting tools: Generally used to cut pattern papers and fabrics. Example- Cutting table, Scissor, Anti cutter, Thread cutter, stitch opener etc.

Usage of Tools:

ToolsUsagesImages
Measurement tapeUsed to measure patterns, fabrics and garments.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\measuring tape.jpg
Scale Used to draw design on pattern and sometimes for measurement purposes. C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\scale.jpg
Pencil Used to draw design on patterns i.e. 2B, HB, 4B etc.Z:\SHAHADATH\sw photo\pencil_0.jpg
Eraser Used to erase any drawn parts for change sketchZ:\SHAHADATH\sw photo\eraser.jpg
Scissor Cutting tools, used to cut different types of patterns and fabrics. General sizes are 8”, 10”, 12”, 14” etc.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\scissor.png
Thread cutterUsed to cut extra thread after garment sewing.
Stitch openerUsed to open defective stitches.
Sewing accessories

What are the Materials used in a Garment factory:

Fabrics are the main raw material to produce garment along with different types of Trims/ Accessories inside and outside of garment. Different types of raw materials name and description given below:

  • Fabric
  • Thread 
  • Button
  • Label
  • Zipper
  • Interlining
  • Elastic
  • Velcro
  • Chalk and marking pencil
  • Measurement tape

Fabric: Different types of garment are made from different types of fabric i.s. Cotton, Polyester, Nylon, Rayon, Linen, Silk, Denim, Jeans, Twill, Gabardine, Flannel, Poplin, Tetron, Single Jersey, Rib, Interlock etc. Different types of fabric’s description given below:

Cotton Cotton fabrics are made from natural fibrous yarn from Carpus trees.Z:\SHAHADATH\sw photo\Cotton-Fabric.jpg
Jeans/DenimHigher (or medium) weighted and strengthen Cotton fabric. Two types of yarns are used to weave Denim/Jeans. One set is Greige/White colored yarn and other is any different colored yarn.Z:\SHAHADATH\sw photo\jeans.jpg
Twill/GabardineThick types of Cotton fabric having different colors. Good for making Pants and Ladies Skirts,Z:\SHAHADATH\sw photo\J21-stretch-gaberdine-trousers.jpg
Garment fabric type

Thread: Two types of threads are used to produce garment in Single Needle Lockstitch Machine.

  1. Cotton    & 2.  Synthetic
CottonCotton threads produce from Cotton fiberZ:\SHAHADATH\sw photo\IndustrialThread-Coats EcoVerde Organic Cotton_tcm35-4187.jpg
Synthetic Produce from Man-made fiberZ:\SHAHADATH\sw photo\synthetic-thread-250x250.gif
Sewing thread

Label: Labels are sewn in different places of garment i.e. inside of Collar stand, lower inside of front Box plate, inside of side seam etc. Label contains essential information about clothing. Mainly two types-

Main Label– Contain information about Company or Country nameC:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\herringbone-clothing-label.jpg
Sub Label– Different types of sub Label given belowCountry and size label– Contain information about manufacturing country and size information.Care label– Contain important care information of garment i.e. Cleaning/Washing, Drying, Ironing etc.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\size label.JPG
C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\care label.jpg
Garment label type

Zipper: Zipper/Chain is an important part of clothing. Use to open/close two parts of a garment. Mainly used in Pants, Jackets, Skirts, Shirts and attaching with garment as a decorative/fashionable purpose. Zippers are mainly two types-

Open end zipper- Both end fully open and mainly used in JacketC:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\M-Open-end zipper.jpg
Closed end zipper- One end open and one end closed. Mainly used in pants.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\M_closed-end zipper.jpg
Zipper type

Zippers are made from three types of material-

Metal chain zipperC:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\metal.jpg
Molded plastic chain zipperC:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\plastic.jpg
Coil (Nylon) chain zipperC:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\nylon.jpg
Image: Type of zipper

Interlining: Interlinings are used to provide a specific dimension in a particular part of a garment with attaching an extra fabric in-between the garment’s part. Its increases garment durability, fitness and strength i.e. Shirts collar, cuff, flap, box plate and skirts waistband too. Interlinings are mainly two types- 

  1. Fusible interlining 
  2. Non-fusible interlining
Z:\SHAHADATH\sw photo\images.jpg
Fusible interlining
Z:\SHAHADATH\sw photo\cbe9caa6_26e69b3c_0995_4f6b_b7e3_22b9bc8727da.jpg
Shirt Interlining

Elastic: Elastics are thin and look like ribbon. Used to loose or tight clothing as much required.

C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\Gripper Elastic.jpg
Garment elastic
C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\139-elastic-waist-01_lg.jpg
Elastic attachment in waistband

Example: usage in pants waistband

Velcro: Velcro used in the waistband of Pants. It’s used to open/close waist belt.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\index.jpg

Example: Velcro used in Skirts waistband

Self-check:

Question paper:

  1. What type of tools are used to make patterns? 
  2. Define: Tracing wheel, French curve, shape curve, notch marker.
  3. What tools are used to cut loose/excess/uncut thread?
  4. What is measurement tape?
  5. Write down different types of fabric names.
  6. White down different parts name of zipper.

Answer sheet:

  1. What type of tools are used to make patterns? 

Answer: Pattern tools are used to make garment patterns. i.e. pattern paper, brown paper, pencil, eraser, sharpener, French curve, hip curve, set square, triangle, roller with greed, paper punch, notch marker.

  1. Define: Tracing wheel, French curve, shape curve, notch marker.

Answer: 

Tracing wheel: After actual pattern making, tracing wheels are used to make more patterns like the actual one within the shortest possible period.

Shape curve: Wooden or plastic made. For garment pattern making, different parts have shape according to human body i.e. Hip shape, waist shape etc. Shape curve is required to make this type of pattern.

  1. What tools are used to cut loose/excess/uncut thread?

Answer: Thread cutter

  1. What is measurement tape?

Answer: Measurement tape is used to measure garment, for making patterns and during fabric cutting.

  1. Write down different types of fabric names.

Answer: Cotton, polyester, nylon, rayon, denim, jeans, gabardine, silk, flannel, poplin, twill etc.

  1. White down different parts name of zipper

Answer: Puller, puller box, zipper teeth, zipper tape, locks etc.

Operation sheet:

Collect tools and materials:

Introduction: This operation sheet is about the selection of different tools and materials, and assembling operations.

Objective: You can do the below job after completing this operation sheet.

  • Selection of necessary tools and materials.
  • Collection of necessary tools and materials
  • Assembling necessary tools and materials.

Measuring tools: This type of tools is generally used to measure patterns, fabrics or garments. Example: measuring tape, scale etc.

Cutting tools: Cutting tools are generally used to pattern paper cutting and fabric cutting. Example: cutting table, scissor, anti-cutter, thread cutter, stitch opener etc.

Working procedure: 

  1. Firstly, select necessary tools and materials according to the function of job (measuring tape, scale, anti-cutter, thread cutter, stitch opener, fabrics, sewing thread, button, label, chain, zipper, interlining, elastic, Velcro, marking chalk, marking pencil etc.).
  2. Secondly, manage necessary tools according to task (measuring tape, scale, anti-cutter, thread cutter, stitch opener, fabrics, sewing thread, button, label, chain, zipper, interlining, elastic, Velcro, marking chalk, marking pencil etc.).
  3. Finally, assemble necessary tools and materials according to job (measuring tape, scale, anti-cutter, thread cutter, stitch opener, fabrics, sewing thread, button, label, chain, zipper, interlining, elastic, Velcro, marking chalk, marking pencil etc.).

Self-check:

Question paper:

  1. What type of tools/materials are required for Garment manufacturing?
  2. What type of cutting tools is used for garment manufacturing?

Answer sheet:

  1. What type of tools and materials are required for Garment manufacturing?

Answer: Measurement tape, anti-cutter, pattern cutter, cloth cutter, stitch opener, thread cutter, fabrics, threads, button, label, zipper, lining, elastic, Velcro, chalk, marking pencil etc.

  1. What type of cutting tools is used for garment manufacturing?

Answer: Anti cutter, pattern cutter, cloth cutter, stitch opener, thread cutter etc.

CHAPTER-4

Introduction of Different Parts of Sewing Machine

Information sheet

Introduction: You need to prepare Sewing Machine before operation starts. For an example: Machine cleaning, Machine Oiling/Lubrication, different safety guard usability, adjusts different machine parts etc.

Objective: To complete this information sheet, you can do the below job:

  1. Sewing machine cleaning
  2. Sewing machine oiling/lubrication
  3. Usage of different types of safety guards
  4. Controlling stitch tension

Information: 

Safety guard: Used to avoid accidents as a safety issue during sewing operations. Example: Motor guard, Eye guard, Pulley guard, Needle guard etc. 

Motor guard: It is used as the motor cover under a sewing machine. This guard ensures operator’s safety from electric shock/danger.

Eye guard: This guard ensures eye’s safety from broken needles during sewing operation.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\L_58836_3176263.jpg
Belt guard: It’s working as a belt cover with a balance wheel.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\Belt_cover_for_sewing_machine_Juki_model_341.jpg
Needle guard: it’s attached with a needle bar which ensures fingers safety during sewing operation.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\index.jpg
Sewing machine safety guard to protect eye

Machine parts: Different type of parts in Single Needle Lockstitch machine. Example-

Table (Body):  Wooden table with Formica attachment on to the body. Sewing machines and other parts are fitted on the table. C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\includes_table_and_motor.jpg
Table stand: Iron/steel made table, looks like a strong foot. These stands carry the weight of sewing machines and thread stands.
Thread plate: Two or three bowl type parts are attached with a lower position of thread stand called thread plate. Thread cone keeps on to the thread plate. One thread cone is being reserved for Bobbin thread winding and others for supply sewing thread.
Machine head: Main parts of the sewing machine which consists of principle parts of sewing operation.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\41aqRNWyT0L.jpg
Head cover: It’s attached to the machine head with screws for covering Feed bar and Needle bar. Head cover needs to open for repairing the Feed bar and Needle bar.
Feed dog: Feed dog is attached to the machine base below the needle. This is used to feed fabrics with moving forward or backward through a feed mechanism during sewing operation.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\industrial_sewing_machine_parts_hooks_bobbin_bobbin_case_presser_foot_loopers_needle_plate_feed_dog_needle_clamp.jpg
Needle: Needle is the most important part of sewing machines. Needles are attached with needle bars to sew fabrics with sewing thread. But all fabrics aren’t sewing with the same needle. Thin needle is required for thinner fabrics.
C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\Needle-Types.jpg
Example: Number 9 & 11 needles for sew thin fabrics, 14 number needles for moderately thicker fabrics and 16 number needles for thicker fabrics, and 18 number needles for heavy thicker fabric. 
Different parts and needles of sewing machine
Needle bar: Main purpose is to attach needle with clampC:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\dpp_166.jpg
Feed bar: Feed bar attached with the side needle bar. Required any types of guide can be attached with a Feed bar for sewing.
Pressure feet: Pressure feet are attached to the feed bar with clamps. Main purpose is to keep pressure on fabric during sewing. C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\feed bar.jpg
Machine wheel: Wheeler type part is attached to the right side of the machine. During sewing of the last portion of garment, this wheel is driven by hand to complete sewing. C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\juki-DNU-1541.jpg
Bobbin winder: This part will help to wind sewing thread into bobbin. Bobbin winders have different positions according to the sewing machine. 
Eye stand: It stands on the mid top of the sewing machine. Threads coming from the thread plate and thread stand will pass through the eye stand. Initially it controls thread speed. 
Body cover: Body cover is attached to the back of the machine. This cover will help to control oil spread out during operation. 
Thread tensioner: This part is attached at the machine head front of the operator which fully controls the thread. Sewing quality fully depends on that control.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\sub-tension.jpg
Hand lifter: It’s attached at the back of the machine to accelerate pressure foot up and down. C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\ddl9000b_6.jpg
Stitch length regulator: It’s attached to the right front of the sewing machine to control stitch length. C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\StitchAdjustment.jpg
Back stitch hand lever: It’s attached just down at regulator for back stitching in start and end of sewing.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\41aqRNWyT0L.jpg
Oil indicator glass: It’s attached to the top of the machine and looks like a crystal eye. Machine oil can be checked by this indicator to understand the requirements of oil.
Needle plate: It’s attached below of Needle or Pressure foot to cover Feed dog and it’s having two Nuts. It helps to move fabrics forward smoothly during operation.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\needle plate.jpg
Thread take up lever: Thread take up lever is an important part of the machine. It’s attached to the top of the machine and in front of the operator to supply thread into the Needle.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\du1181.gif.jpg
Cover: Thread take up lever is covered with a steel body called Thread take up lever cover. It ensures operators’ head and hand’s safety.
Open drawer: It’s attached right top on table to keep marking chalk, cutter, needle, guide, pressure foot etc.
Knee lifter: Knee lifter is attached under the table towards Operator’s right knee. When Operator presses the knee lifter in the right direction, the pressure foot is going upward to feed fabric and sewing starts after releasing pressure.
Machine’s belt: Belt is made of rubber or leather. It’s attached to the machine’s clutch wheel or right sided wheel. As a result, torque transfer from Clutch wheel to machine wheel trough belt. C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\Seiko-8BLD-3-Bobbin-winder-on-the-side.jpg
Belt cover: It covers the machine belt to avoid unwanted winding of fabrics/other materials with the machine belt. It’s made with steel or plastic.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\Belt_cover_for_sewing_machine_Juki_model_341.jpg
Paddle: Operators put their both feet onto the paddle to keep the control machine’s start/stop. Machines will start/stop through the operator’s foot pressing onto paddle forward/backward down.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\DDL-8100E.jpg
Machine motor: Different types of motor are available in the market. Whereas Clutch motors are used in sewing machines to run the machine through the clutch wheel. Clutch motors don’t start during switch on of sewing machines like others motors. When the operator will press on the paddle after power on, then the clutch wheel will start to accelerate sewing operation.
Motor wheel: Round circular wheeler type part attached with machine motor to start clutch wheel during pressing paddle. It’s noticeable that the belt will start the machine after the rotation of the motor clutch.C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\sewing_machine_motor_634594228199235255_1.jpg
Wheel cover: This is the cover of a motor wheel.
Machine’s on/off switch: It’s attached on the right side below the table having two switches of RED and GREEN colored. GREEN for machine on and RED for off.
Different parts and functions of sewing machine

Usage of guide: Guides are used to keep equal measurement of sewing on fabrics. Which is attached with a feed bar. Its pressed fabrics are like a pressure foot. It’s useful to keep the actual distance between two stitch lines. Different types of guide are available in market i.e. 1/32, 1/16, 1/8, ¼ etc.

C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\foot.jpg
Different sewing machine guide

Fig: Different type of guides

Self-check:

Question sheet:

  1. Name of different type of safety guard.
  2. Usages of eye guard.
  3. Name of different types of machine parts.
  4. Define feed dog.

Answer sheet:

  1. Name of different type of safety guard.

Answer: Motor guard, eye guard, pulley guard, needle guard etc. (for safety purpose)

  1. Usages of eye guard.

Answer: Eye guards are used for safety issues during needle breakage.

  1. Name of different types of machine parts.

Answer: Machine stand, machine wheel, needle bar, pressure foot, thread take-up lever, tension post, spool pin, regulating screw, oil indicator glass, knee lifter, machine motor, paddle etc.

  1. Define feed dog.

Answer: Feed dog/teeth stay below needle to keep contact fabrics with machine bed and turn forward to stitched fabric.


CHAPTER-5

SET MACHINE FOR OPERATION

Operation sheet

Introduction: This operation sheet covers detailed information about safety guard, stitch tension, different stitching according to fabric type and usage of different parts of Single Needle Lock Stitch machine.

Object: This operation sheet will be more helpful to do below tasks as well.

  • Cleaning of machine and periodic oiling/lubrication
  • Usage of different safety guards
  • Attachment of different parts of Single Needle Lock Stitch machine

Cautions: 

  • Carefully connect all kinds of electric connections.
  • After switching on the sewing machine, wait 30 second.
  • Don’t keep your foot on Paddle during needle attachment.
  • Make sure that the motor’s free wheel fully stops before needle attachment. Sometimes motors free wheels continue to rotate after switching off.
  •  Don’t touch the back of the switch board because electric wire connections can cause danger.
  • Keep your hand far from the needle when the switch is on.
  • Don’t keep your finger on the thread take up lever after switching on.
  • Make sure that the switch is off before the up-down of the machine head.
  • Keep your hand/head far from the machine wheel during operation.
  • Switch off motor if sewing operation isn’t continuing. This will be helpful to reduce waste of electricity and motor burn due to excess heat generation. 

Working procedure: Below working procedure to prepare Single Needle Lockstitch machine for sewing operation:

  1. Firstly take your seat with straight body positioning and eye vision direct to the needle.
  2. Clean machine with duster cloth or brush.
  3. Then, properly apply oil to the machine and check the oil level is mid position between low level and high-level.
  4. After that, usage of safety guard in proper positioning (Needle guard and eye guard)
  5. Properly check different parts of the machine to set it in the required position.

Set the machine parts as below procedures:

Needle attachment procedure: It needs to be more careful to attach a needle because the needle is a tiny and sharp part of the sewing machine. Steps to be followed for needle attachment-

  1. Firstly, loose the needle bar screw.
  2. Then, insert the needle (shank/round side/flat side) into the needle bar up to end and tight the screw. For a single needle machine, the needles group cut mark will be at the left side. For double needle sewing machine, right needles group cut mark at right side and left needles group cut mark at left side. 
Needle bar of sewing machine

Needle threading: Threading is the most important task for better stitching. Below steps to be followed carefully-

  1. Put thread cone into thread stand
  2. Then the thread is passing through the thread stand point to the tension spring.
  3. After that the thread is entering through the thread take-up lever to the needle point.
Needle threading of sewing machine

Bobbin and bobbin case: Stitching is done by two sets of thread, one from a needle and another from a bobbin. Bobbin case is attached with a hook of Feed dog. Bobbin sets inside the bobbin case. 

Bobbin threading procedure: Below procedures to be followed for bobbin winding:

 Attach Bobbin into the right sided bobbin winder of the sewing machine.

  1. Manually wind the thread from bobbin winder to the bobbin unto 2-3 spin.
  2. Press winder spring and bobbin will be filled up by thread.
Bobbin attachment procedure on sewing machine
C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\bobbin1.jpg
Process to attach bobbin in sewing machine

Bobbin attachment with Bobbin case: 

  1. Hold Bobbin and Bobbin case face to face
  2. Insert Bobbin inside the Bobbin case. Be careful that the thread can easily come out from the bobbin hole.
Bobbin attachment

Bobbin case (with bobbin) attachment and remove from machine: Bobbin case will attach with the hook of Feed dog just below the needle. Bobbin case will attach with the hook by smoother pressing. Bobbin case will be attached with a sound. Imperfect adjustment won’t create any sound. Bobbin case has a spring to remove that case from the sewing machine.

Bobbin removing procedure
C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\bobbin3.jpg
Sewing machine bobbin removing process

Adjustment of SPI (Stitch per Inch/stitch number) and Thread tension:

SPI adjustment: Required number of stitches per inch is called SPI. Normally required stitches per inch are 8. It can be 10 to 12 stitches as per requirement. SPI controls with stitching regulator dial adjustment according to dial numbering in left or right direction. 

Thread tension adjustment – sewing machine

Thread tension adjustment: Thread tension measured according to the sewing design during operation. Bellow rules will be followed to adjust needles and bobbins thread tension-

Thread tension adjustment of needle: Below procedures to be followed –

  1. Right side rotation of tensioner- Thread tension increases
  2. Left side rotation of tensioner – thread tension decreases
Tension adjustment
C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\machine\parts\Juki_TL-2010Q_SubTensionUnit.jpg

Thread tension adjustment of bobbin: Below procedures to be followed –

  1. Right rotation of bobbin case screw- Tension increases
  2. Left rotation of bobbin case screw- Tension decreases

Self-check:

Question sheet:

  1. Attach a needle with a sewing machine.
  2. Needle threading
  3. Bobbin threading
  4. Bobbin case (with bobbin) attachment/detachment with sewing machine.

Answer sheet: 

  1. Attachment of needle with sewing machine.

Answer: Firstly, loose needle bar screw. Then, insert the needle into the needle bar until the end and tighten the screw. Needle group cut marks will be at the left side for the Single needle lock stitch machine.

  1. Needle threading

Answer: Put thread cones into the thread stand. Then the thread is passing through the thread stand point to the tension spring. After that the thread is entering through the thread take-up lever to the needle point.

  1. Bobbin threading

Answer: Manually wind the thread from bobbin winder to the bobbin unto 2-3 spin. Press winder spring and bobbin will be filled up by bobbin thread.

  1. Bobbin case (with bobbin) attachment/detachment with sewing machine.

Answer: Hold Bobbin and Bobbin’s case face to face. Insert Bobbin inside the Bobbin case. Be careful that the thread can easily come out from the bobbin hole. Bobbin case will attach with the hook of Feed dog just below the needle. Bobbin case will attach with the hook by smoother pressing. Bobbin’s case will be attached with a sound. Imperfect adjustment won’t create any sound. Bobbin case has a spring to remove that case from the sewing machine.


Chapter-6

Basic exercise

  1. Identification of tools and materials according to job nature (Practical). 
  2. Visual identification of sewing machine according to sewing operation (Practical).
  3. Preparation of sewing machine for operation (Practical).
  4. Identification of different types of needle and guide according to sewing nature (practical).
  5. Oil/lubrication procedure of sewing machine (practical) and general maintenance of sewing machine.
  6. Practical exercise about SPI adjustment according to requirement.
  7. Practical exercise about tensioner adjustment during sewing operation.
  8. Practical exercise about bobbin threading and needle threading of sewing machines.
  9. Identification of safety guards and function of safety guard during operation (practical).
  10. Practical evaluation of sewing operators based on tools/material identification & different parts identification of sewing machines and their functions.

CHAPTER-7

PRACTICE SEWING ON PAPERS

Information sheet

Introduction: This information sheet about the detailed description of sewing on paper through a drawn line by a single needle lock stitch machine. Example- straight line, curve line, circle, sharp corner, cross line etc. 

Objective: You can learn below tasks after completing this sheet.

  • To know different types of stitching on paper through drawn line by single needle lock stitch machine i.e. straight line, curve line, circle, sharp corner, cross line etc. exercise over drawn line on papers. 

Information: Below information documented in this sheet-

Exercise: Two types of exercise-

  1. Basic exercise
  2. Job related exercise

Basic exercise: Generally basic exercise is the practice about to learn sewing procedures.

Different types of basic exercise given below:

  1. Straight line stitching exercise
  2. Straight line with back tack stitching exercise
  3. Straight line stitching with cut mark matching exercise
  4. Sharp corner stitching exercise
  5. Curve lines stitching exercise
  6. Circular stitching exercise
  7. Cross line stitching exercise

Job related exercise: Those exercises related to practical work are called Job related exercise. Different types of job related exercise given below:

  1. Sharp corner stitching exercise
  2. Short long stitching exercise
  3. Ling stitching exercise
  4. Hemming stitching exercise
  5. Top stitch stitching exercise
  6. Curve line stitching with cut mark/matching position stitching exercise

Description of different line exercise given below:

Straight line stitching exercise:

This stitching is according to scaling of pressure foot thru one fourth gap straight line. Different parts of shirts, pants, skirts are done by this type of stitching.

C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\jsrtj.jpg
Stitch type: Straight line

Straight line with back stitch exercise:  These types of sewing are done in start and end of garment stitching. Back stitch increases sewing strength.

C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\Untitled1.jpg
Stitch type: Straight line with bartack

Sharp corner stitching exercise: Corners of Shirt collar, pocket or cuffs etc. 

C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\Untitledw2.jpg
Stitch type: Sharp corner stitching

Circular round stitching exercise: Round cuff/pocket stitching learning exercise.

Stitch type: circular round stitch

Cross line stitching exercise: Stitching adjustment of under armhole of shirts and cross point of pants will be easier to do below exercise:

C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\dgbsed.jpg
Stitch type: cross line

Curve line sewing exercise: Round cuff, round pocket etc. stitching will be easier to practice below exercise.

Stitch type: curve line

Self-check:

Question sheet: 

  1. What is exercise? Types of exercises.
  2. Name of different types of line to practice sewing operation.

Answer sheet:

  1. What is exercise? Types of exercises.

Answer: Exercise is the preparation step to gather proper information about any task before operation.

  1. Basic exercise
  2. Job related exercise
  3. Name of different types of line to practice sewing operation.

Answer: straight line stitching exercise, straight line stitching with back-tack exercise, sharp corner stitching exercise, round/circle stitching exercise, cross line stitching exercise, curve line stitching exercise.

Operation sheet 

Practice sewing on paper:

Introduction: This operation sheet about sewing practice on paper i.e. straight line, curve line, circle, sharp corner, cross line etc.

Objective: Perform sewing with Single needle lock stitch machine on different types of drawn line i.e. straight line, curve line, circle, sharp corner, cross line etc.

Precautions before start sewing operation:

  1. Stitching line must be according to the line
  2. Provide all electric connections very carefully.
  3. Eye contact must be directed to the needle.
  4. Body position must be straight on the seat during operation.
  5. Right hand must be kept on practice paper.
  6. Use the right foot for paddle pressing when sewing operation will start.
  7. Wait 30 second to start operation after switching on.

Working procedures: Below procedures to be followed to sew on drawn line:

Straight line sewing practice:

Step-1. Firstly, take your seat with straight body condition and eye contact directly to the needle.

Step-2. Then take the straight line drawn paper.

Step-3. Now take up the pressure foot and place the practice paper below pressure foot.

Step-4. Keep the practice paper in the correct position.

Step-5. Make your needle down for insertion into paper.

Step-6. Make power switch on.

Step-7. Start to sew paper straight. (First, sew without thread and then with thread).

C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\jsrtj.jpg
Stitch type: power stitch

Step-8. Switch off after sewing finishes.

Step-9. Take up pressure and take the paper 4” forward by manual hand wheel rotation.

Step-10. Cut threads by using a cutter from both sides. (Keep 1cm thread in both side)

Step-11. Keep fabric and cutters in the exact place.

Curve line sewing practice: 

Step-1. Firstly, take your seat with straight body condition and eye contact directly to the needle.

Step-2. Then take the straight line drawn paper.

Step-3. Now take up the pressure foot and place the practice paper below pressure foot.

Step-4. Keep the practice paper in the correct position.

Step-5. Make your needle down for insertion into paper.

Step-6. Make power switch on.

Step-7. Start to sew paper straight. (First, sew without thread and then with thread).

Stitch type: Curve line

Step-8. Switch off after sewing finishes.

Step-9. Take up pressure and take the paper 4” forward by manual hand wheel rotation.

Step-10. Cut threads by using a cutter from both sides. (Keep 1cm thread in both sides)

Step-11. Keep fabric and cutters in the exact place.

Circle line sewing practice: 

Step-1. Firstly, take your seat with straight body condition and eye contact directly to the needle.

Step-2. Then take the straight line drawn paper.

Step-3. Now take up the pressure foot and place the practice paper below pressure foot.

Stitch type: round

Step-4. Keep the practice paper in the correct position.

Step-5. Make your needle down for insertion into paper.

Step-6. Make power switch on.

Step-7. Start to sew paper straight. (First, sew without thread and then with thread).

Step-8. Switch off after sewing finishes.

Step-9. Take up pressure and take the paper 4” forward by manual hand wheel rotation.

Step-10. Cut threads by using a cutter from both sides. (Keep 1cm thread in both side)

Step-11. Keep fabric and cutters in the exact place.

Sharp corner sewing practice: 

Step-1. Firstly, take your seat with straight body condition and eye contact directly to the needle.

Step-2. Then take the straight line drawn paper.

Step-3. Now take up the pressure foot and place the practice paper below pressure foot.

Step-4. Keep the practice paper in the correct position.

Step-5. Make your needle down for insertion into paper.

Stitch type: Sharp corner

Step-6. Make power switch on.

Step-7. Start to sew paper straight. (First, sew without thread and then with thread).

Step-8. Switch off after sewing finishes.

Step-9. Take up pressure and take the paper 4” forward by manual hand wheel rotation.

Step-10. Cut threads by using a cutter from both sides. (Keep 1cm thread in both side)

Step-11. Keep fabric and cutters in the exact place.

Cross line sewing practice: 

Step-1. Firstly, take your seat with straight body condition and eye contact directly to the needle.

Step-2. Then take the straight line drawn paper.

Step-3. Now take up the pressure foot and place the practice paper below pressure foot.

Step-4. Keep the practice paper in the correct position.

Step-5. Make your needle down for insertion into paper.

Step-6. Make power switch on.

Step-7. Start to sew paper straight. (First, sew without thread and then with thread).

Step-8. Switch off after sewing finishes.

C:\Users\Shahadath\Desktop\dgbsed.jpg
Stitch type: cross line

Step-9. Take up pressure and take the paper 4” forward by manual hand wheel rotation.

Step-10. Cut threads by using a cutter from both sides. (Keep 1cm thread in both side)

Step-11. Keep fabric and cutters in the exact place.

Self-check:

Question sheet: 

  1. Practical exercise of straight line stitching.
  2. Practical exercise of round/circle line stitching.
  3. How much time to delay after the machine switches on for start operation?
  4. Different types of stitching exercises on practice sheets.

Answer sheet:

  1. Practical exercise of straight line stitching.

Answer: Firstly, take your seat with straight body condition and eye contact directly to the needle. Then take the straight line drawn paper. Now take up the pressure foot and place the practice paper below pressure foot. Keep the practice paper in the correct position. Make your needle down for insertion into paper. Make the power switch on. Start to sew paper straight. (First, sew without thread and then with thread).

  1. Practical exercise of round/circle line stitching

Answer: Firstly, take your seat with straight body condition and eye contact directly to the needle. Then take the straight line drawn paper. Now take up the pressure foot and place the practice paper below pressure foot. Keep the practice paper in the correct position. Make your needle down for insertion into paper. Make the power switch on. Start to sew paper straight. (First, sew without thread and then with thread).  Switch off after sewing finishes. Take up pressure and take the paper 4” forward by manual hand wheel rotation. Cut threads by using a cutter from both sides. (Keep 1cm thread in both sides) Keep fabric and cutters in the exact place.

  1. How much time to delay after the machine switches on for start operation?

Answer: 30 second.

  1. Different types of stitching exercises on practice sheets.

Answer: Straight line, curve line, circle line, sharp corner and cross line.


Chapter-8

Perform Sewing

Information sheet

Introduction: This information sheet has detail exercise about different part attachment by stitching with Single Needle Lockstitch machine. Although this sheet contains preparation of stitch opening, defect identification and sewing quality control, loose thread trimming and training to get prepared for the next step.

Objective: You can do the below tasks after completion of these sheets accurately.

  • Stitching of different garment parts to keep qualitative and quantitative control. 
  • Defects identification and rectification/avoidance. 
  • Stitch opening of different parts

Information: This information sheet contains the below information:

Garment parts: Detail description of different parts of garment given below-

Cuff: This part is attached with a full sleeve opening point of long sleeve Shirts/jacket/others decorative garment. Cuff measurements vary according to garment size/style. Button & buttonhole is attached with a cuff. Four cut panels are required for two cuffs.

Fig: Cuff

Sleeve placket: Placket is attached below the cuff of full sleeve shirts. Cuff is attached with this part. 

Fig: Sleeve placket

Collar: Collar is the top most part of shirts/Polo shirts having sharp points called collar points. Extra fabric/fusing fabric (interlining) is kept inside the collar to increase its durability.

Fig: Collar

Collar band: Collar is attached with collar band. Button and buttonhole attached with a collar band. 

Fig: Collar band

Pocket: Pocket is attached with different parts of the garment according to the garment style. Pockets are normally 04 types: 1) Square pocket, 2) Pentagon pocket, 3) Round pocket and 4) Hexagon pocket.

Fig: Pocket

Yoke: Yoke is attached with the top of the back part and the collar below. Yoke shape can vary according to style. Sometimes yoke is also attached with the front part below the collar for decorative purposes. Shirts/Polo shirts yoke is a part which has attachment with all parts of garment i.e. sleeve, collar, front part and back part. 

Fig: Yoke

Back part: Rear part of garment is called back part. Back part is attached with the front part and top attachment with a yoke/collar.

Fig: Back part

Step-1. Firstly take your seat with a straight body position and eye contact directly to the needle. Example: 1) Upper front part and 2) Lower front part.

Different types of stitching defect are given below: 

  1. Puckering: 

Reason: 

  • Incorrect sewing machine threading
  • Incorrect needle attachment
  • Higher thread tension
  • Uneven thread passing guide/parts
  • Thread twisting inside sewing machine
  • Corrosion of looper

Preventive actions:

  • Perfect threading
  • Attaching needle in a correct way
  • Cleaning of twisted thread
  • Adjustment of thread tension
  1. Floating stitch: Higher stitch length during stitching instead of required stitch length.

Reason:

  • Bobbin thread is unable to interlope with needle thread in time.
  • Uneven needle and bobbin thread tension.
  • Defective needle
  • Too small needle thread loop.

Preventive actions:

  • Correct needle & bobbin case setting and exact timing.
  • Adjust thread tension accurately.
  • To change needle
  • To change needle size
  1. Wrinkles: 

Reason: Higher bobbin tension and lower thread tension.

Corrective actions: To loose bobbin screw and increase needle thread tension.

  1. Flagging stitch: 

Reason: Uneven stitch occurring d for defective needle plate (needle plates hole size increases). 

Corrective actions: 

  • To change needle plate
  • To change pressure.
  1. Staggered stitch:

Reason: 

  • Malfunctioning of feed dog motion.
  • Incorrect control over fabrics by feed mechanism.
  • Defective needle point.

Corrective actions:

  • To correct feed dog motion
  • Adjust actual pressure of pressure foot.
  • To change needles.

Self-check: 

Question sheet:

  1. Different types of garment components’ names.
  2. Different types of sewing defects are named.
  3. Types of  pocket
  4. Placement of yoke in Shirt/polo shirt/tops (decorative).

Answer sheet:

  1. Different types of garment components’ names.

Answer: Sleeve, Sleeve placket, collar, collar band, pocket, yoke, back part, front part, placket etc.

  1. Different types of sewing defects are named.

Answer: Puckering, floating stitch, wrinkle, flagging stitch, staggered stitch etc.

  1. Types of  pocket

Answer: Square pocket, pentagon pocket, round pocket, hexagon pocket.

  1. Placement of yoke in Shirt/polo shirt/tops (decorative).

Answer: Collar is the top most part of shirts/Polo shirts having sharp points called collar points. Extra fabric/fusing fabric (interlining) is kept inside the collar to increase its durability.


Chapter-9

Perform sewing in different component

Operation sheet

Introduction: This information sheet will provide a detailed description of Polo Shirt’s sewing exercise and unstitching of different components of Polo shirts. This sheet will help you to sew in a corrective way and will ensure quality sewing operation with trimming and prepare for the next sewing operation.

Objectives:  Take papers which have drawn curve lines to easier sewing practices.

  • Unstitching of different components.
  • Stitching of different components with qualitative and quantitative controls.
  • Defects identification and elimination.

Already you know about different garment parts and stitching defects i.e. collar, placket, pocket, front part etc.

Stitching defects:  Different sewing defects are Puckering, flagging stitch, floating stitch, wrinkles and staggered stitch.

Precautions: 

  1. Stitching must be according to the line.
  2. Connect all electric connections carefully.
  3. Eye contact directs towards the needle.
  4. Straight body position during operation.
  5. Right hand must be put on practice paper.
  6. Using your right foot to paddle pressing during start sewing.
  7. Start sewing operation 30 second after switching on the sewing machine.

Working principle:

First, unstitching attachment of different parts of a garment and then, stitching those parts. 

Sewing procedures of different parts of Shirt/Polo Shirt:-

Cuff sewing: Normally Polo shirts cuff is made from knitted Rib fabrics. Sometimes cuffs operation may vary as like Shirts cuff making operation due to style variation.

Cuff rolling is the first step of shirt/Polo shirt (if have cuff) making. Therefore, ¼ guides are used for sewing operations. 

Sewing practice using guide

Fig: ¼ guide using for stitching

Cuff making: 

  1. Take the rolling part and other cuff parts together.
  2. Now stitching those parts together according to mark. This is called cuff making.
  3. Prepare both hands cuff same like above direction.
  4. Cuffs having excess fabric after stitching. Cut those excess fabrics with scissors if required.

Fig: Cuff making

Cuff turning:

  1. Now turn opposite the stitching part like a sketch.
  2. Then, top stitching using ¼ guides.
  3. Threading of feed dogs hook after winding thread into rolling bobbin.
  4. Sometimes cuffs have two random stitching. ¼ and 1/32 guides are used for that operation.

Fig: Cuff turning and cuff ¼ top stitching

Collar making:

  1. Take collar panels from a cut bundle. 
  2. Then, the marked part and others collar parts are set together according to the measurement.
  3. Then stitching together according to the marking.
  4. Stitching with different thread of both collar points.
  5. After that, cut excess fabric and turn as cuff turning.
  6. Finally, required top stitching using ¼ and 1/32 guide.

Fig: Collar making

Collar band making: Collar band is rolling with ¼ guides.

Fig: Band making

Band joint:

  1. Put the band part over the collar part.
  2. Now keep the rolling part over the collar.
  3. Then, stitching according to the stitching mark.
  4. After that, turn opposite after cutting the required excess part of fabric.
  5. Finally, top stitching through the middle of the collar and band by 1/16 and 1/32 guide.

Fig: Band joining

Front part: front parts have two portions:

Lower front part is the right portion and upper front part is the left portion, Men’s shirts/Polo shirts have button attachment on right side of front part and Ladies have button attachment on left side, is also called button plate.

  1. Button/button part rolling measurement is 1 inch.
  2. Pocket attachment position will be marked with chalk.

Placket making: Placket is the part of the lower sleeve position.

The Packet has two parts: a. Upper placket & b. Lower placket

Lower placket making: 

Step-1: Keep the lower plate on the table.

Step-2: Now keep the placket pattern on the lower placket and fold according to the pattern.

Step-3: Then pressing carefully and embellish according to numbering.

Right upper placket making: 

 Step-1: Group cut mark will be at left side.

Step-2: Now place your pattern to the upper plate and fold according to the pattern.

Step-3: Then pressing carefully and embellish according to numbering.

Left upper placket making: 

Step-1: Group cut mark will be at left side.

Step-2: Now turn over the placket pattern to keep onto the upper placket and fold according to the pattern. 

Step-3: Then pressing carefully and embellish according to numbering.

Pocket making: 

Step-1: Pocket rolling according to the measurement.

Step-2: Now put it onto the table.

Step-3: Now put the pattern onto the pocket and fold accordingly.

Step-4: Then pressing carefully and embellish according to numbering.

Pocket joint with upper front part: 

Steps to be followed for upper pocket join-

Step-1: Front parts pocket position set into the machine according to the marking.

Step-2: Folded pocket set onto the front parts marked position.

Step-3: Now start stitching from the right side of pocket opening with 3 steps back stitching and stop stitching with needle down at the corner position.

Step-4: Then take the pressure foot upward position to set the pocket for start stitching.

Step-5: Simultaneously every corner is stitching as before with back stitch at the end position.

Back part attachment: 

Below procedures to be followed to attach back part with front part-

Back tacking – Sometimes a folded part can see through the mid position of the back part of the shirt/ladies tops etc. Folding position can vary according to the style. This is called back tack. Now stitching according to the marking (middle/side position). 

Label attachment with lower part of yoke: 

Step-1: Set the front side of the lower yoke to the machine.

Step-2: Set the label at mid position of yoke according to the cut mark.

Step-3: Now attach that label with yoke by stitching.

Different types of sewing defects:

  1. Puckering: 

Reason: 

  1. Incorrect threading
  2. Reverse needle attachment.
  3. Thread twisting inside machine
  4. Higher thread tension
  5. Uneven thread passing guide/parts
  6. Looper corrosion

Precaution:

  1. Actual threading to machine
  2. Correct attachment of needle.
  3. Twisted yarn clean from machine inside
  4. Thread tension adjustment.
  1. Floating stitch: Higher stitch length during stitching instead of required stitch length.

Reason:

  1. Bobbin thread is unable to interlope with needle thread in time.
  2. Uneven needle and bobbin thread tension.
  3. Defective needle
  4. Too small needle thread loop.

Precaution:

  1. Correct needle & bobbin case setting and exact timing.
  2. Adjust thread tension accurately.
  3. To change needle
  4. To change needle size
  5. Wrinkles: 

Reason: Higher bobbin tension and lower thread tension.

Corrective actions: To loose bobbin screw and increase needle thread tension.

  1. Flagging stitch: 

Reason: Uneven stitch occurring d for defective needle plate (needle plates hole size increases). 

Corrective actions: 

  1. To change needle plate
  2. To change pressure.
  1. Staggered stitch:

Reason: 

  1. Malfunctioning of feed dog motion.
  2. Incorrect control over fabrics by feed mechanism.
  3. Defective needle point.

Corrective actions:

  1. To correct feed dog motion
  2. Adjust actual pressure of pressure foot.
  3. To change needles.

Self-check:

Question sheet:

  1. How to make a cuff? Show practical cuff making procedure.
  2. What type of guides are used for collar top stitching?

Answer sheet:

  1. How to make a cuff? Show practical cuff making procedure.

Answer: 

Cuff sewing: Normally Polo shirts cuff is made from knitted Rib fabrics. Sometimes cuffs operation may vary as like Shirts cuff making operation due to style variation.

Cuff rolling is the first step of shirt/Polo shirt (if have cuff) making. Therefore, ¼ guides are used for sewing operations. 

Cuff making: 

Take the rolling part and other cuff parts together. Now stitching those parts together according to the mark. This is called cuff making. Prepare both hands cuff same like above direction. Cuffs having excess fabric after stitching. Cut those excess fabrics with scissors if required.

Cuff turning:

Now turn opposite the stitching part like a sketch. Then, top stitching using ¼ guides. Threading of feed dogs hook after winding thread into rolling bobbin. Sometimes cuffs have two random stitching. ¼ and 1/32 guides are used for that operation.

  1. What type of guides are used for collar top stitching?

    Answer: Using ¼ and 1/32 guides for collar top stitching.


Chapter-10

Transfer the sewing components for next operation

Information sheet

Introduction: This information sheet has a detailed description about transferring the sewing components for the next operation.

Objectives: After completion this information sheet, you will know the below tasks –

  • How to bind a bundle of sewing components.
  •  How to transfer the sewing component for the next operation.

Special instruction: 

  • Carefully secure every bundle to avoid size mixing.
  • Transfer the sewing component for the next operation according to the instructions.

Information: Those components need to tight a bundle given below:

Cuff: This part is attached with a full sleeve opening point of long sleeve Shirts/jackets/another decorative garment. Cuff measurements vary according to garment size/style. Button & buttonhole is attached with a cuff. Four cut panels are required for two cuffs.

Fig: Cuff

Placket: Placket is attached below the cuff of full sleeve shirts. Cuff is attached with this part. 

Fig: Sleeve placket

Collar: Collar is the top most part of shirts/Polo shirts having sharp points called collar points. Extra fabric/fusing fabric (interlining) is kept inside the collar to increase its durability.

Fig: Collar

Collar band: Collar is attached with collar band. Button and buttonhole attached with a collar band. 

Fig: Collar band

Pocket: Pocket is attached with different parts of the garment according to the garment style. Pockets are normally 04 types: 1) Square pocket, 2) Pentagon pocket, 3) Round pocket and 4) Hexagon pocket.

Fig: Pocket

Yoke: The yoke is attached with the top of the back part and the collar below. Yoke shape can vary according to style. Sometimes yoke is also attached with the front part below the collar for decorative purposes. Shirts/Polo shirts yoke is a part which has an attachment with all parts of garment i.e. sleeve, collar, front part and back part. 

Fig: Yoke

Back part: Rear part of garment is called back part. Back part is attached with the front part and top attachment with a yoke/collar.

Front part: Front side component of the garment having two parts.

Ex. 1. Upper front part, 2. Lower front part.

Self-check:

Question sheet:

  1. Describe the required components to make the panel bundle.

Answer sheet:

  1. Describe about required component to make panel bundle

Answer: Cuff, sleeve placket (left & right), right sleeve, left sleeve, band collar, upper & lower front part, pocket, back part, yoke.


Chapter-11

Assemble the components

Information sheet

Introduction: This information will provide knowledge about assembling different parts of garment parts/panels and introduce them with different garment components.

Objectives: After completion of this sheet, you can do the below tasks-

  • To know the correct assembling of garment components according to the instruction sheet.
  • To complete stitching (edges) accurately according to the Buyer requirements.

Information: Below information listed to this information sheet.

Garment parts: Detail description of different parts of garment given below-

Cuff: This part is attached with a full sleeve opening point of long sleeve Shirts/jacket/others decorative garment. Cuff measurements vary according to garment size/style. Button & buttonhole is attached with a cuff. Four cut panels are required for two cuffs.

Fig: Cuff

Sleeve placket: Placket is attached below the cuff of full sleeve shirts. Cuff is attached with this part. 

Fig: Sleeve placket

Collar: Collar is the top most part of shirts/Polo shirts having sharp points called collar points. Extra fabric/fusing fabric (interlining) is kept inside the collar to increase its durability.

Fig: Collar

Collar band: Collar is attached with collar band. Button and buttonhole attached with a collar band. 

Fig: Collar band

Pocket: Pocket is attached with different parts of the garment according to the garment style. Pockets are normally 04 types: 1) Square pocket, 2) Pentagon pocket, 3) Round pocket and 4) Hexagon pocket.

Fig: Pocket

Yoke: The yoke is attached with the top of the back part and the collar below. Yoke shape can vary according to style. Sometimes yoke is also attached with the front part below the collar for decorative purposes. Shirts/Polo shirts yoke is a part which has an attachment with all parts of garment i.e. sleeve, collar, front part, and back part. 

Fig: Yoke

Back part: Rear part of garment is called back part. Back part is attached with the front part and top attachment with a yoke/collar.

Front part: Front side component of the garment having two parts.

Example: 1) Upper front part and 2) Lower front part.

Self-check:

Question sheet:

  1. What is yoke and placement of yoke in garment?
  2. Placement of sleeve placket in garment.

Answer sheet:

  1. What is yoke and placement of yoke in garment?

Answer: The yoke is attached with the top of the back part and the collar below. Yoke shape can vary according to style. Sometimes yoke is also attached with the front part below the collar for decorative purposes. Shirts/Polo shirts yoke is a part which has an attachment with all parts of garment i.e. sleeve, collar, front part, and back part.

  1. Placement of sleeve placket in garment.

Answer: Placket is attached below the cuff of full sleeve shirts. Cuff is attached with this part.

Operation sheet 

Assemble the components:

Introduction: This operation sheet has a detailed description of assembling different garment components I.e. components- Cuff, collar width band, sleeve placket, yoke width front and back part, pocket. 

Objective: 

  • To assemble garment components according to the instruction sheet.
  • To accomplish edge stitching of garment according to the Buyer instruction.

Already you know about the different garment component and stitching defects i.e. Cuff, collar, yoke, sleeve etc.

Precautions: 

  1. The stitching must be according to the line.
  2. Connect all electric connections carefully.
  3. Eye contact directs towards the needle.
  4. Straight body position during operation.
  5. The right hand must be put on practice paper.
  6. Using your right foot to paddle pressing during start sewing.
  7. Start sewing operation 30 seconds after switching on the sewing machine.

Working procedure: 

  1. Firstly, open the parts bundle binding.
  2. Then, attach different parts.

Attachment procedure of different component given below: 

Lower placket joint with sleeve (Gamble): 

Below procedure to be followed to joint (gamble) sleeve with lower placket:

Step-1: Insert small portion of left sleeve opening into opening side of lower placket and set onto the machine for sewing.

Step-2: Now sewing starts and ends with back stitching.

Step-3: Simultaneously, attach the lower placket with the right sleeve as like above steps and stitching accordingly.

Upper placket joint with sleeve: 

Step-1: Larger portion of left sleeve opening insert into the opening of upper placket.

Step-2: Start sewing with back stitching and stop stitching at corner position with needle downward. 

Step-3: Then take-up pressure feet and turn the job in an accurate position. Take down pressure feet.

Step-4: Now, start sewing as above, corner stitching and stop sewing a placket house.

Step-5: As like above procedure, perform upper placket joint with right sleeve.

Back part and yoke joint: 

Step-1: Keep the inner (lower) part straight inside between two parts of the yoke.

Step-2: Put back part onto it.

Step-3: Then put another yoke part on it to start stitching.

Shoulder joint: 

Step-1: Keep the lower part of the yoke onto the sewing table.

Step-2: Put the upper front part onto the lower part of the yoke.

Step-3: Now keep the upper part of the yoke equal to the front part with folding and complete the stitching process with back stitch at start and end.

Step-4: Complete sewing of the other side as before.

Sleeve joint with body:

Left sleeve joint:

Step-1: Do a cut mark through the midline of the body part and left sleeve.

Step-2: Keep the actual position of the body part (back part of armhole) and left sleeve with cut mark matching and take the pressure feet down.

Step-3: Now start stitching with backstitch up to the front of the armhole and stop with back stitching.

Step-4: Finally sew required an armhole top stitch.

Right sleeve joint:

Step-1: Cut mark through mid-position of body part (front part of armhole) and right sleeve.

Step-2: Keep the actual position of the body part (front part of armhole) and right sleeve with cut mark matching and take the pressure feet down.

Step-3: Now start stitching with backstitch up to the back of the armhole and stop with back stitching.

Step-4: Finally sew required armhole top stitching.

Side seam: 

Step-1: Equally hold both sides (end edge) of the right sleeve.

Step-2: Then carefully set the machine.

Step-3: Now start stitching with backstitch up to armhole and stop stitching.

Step-4: Then keep the needle down and hold equally both parts at the end of the body part.

Step-5: Start machine and carefully stitch up to end edge of body with back tack.

Collar joint with body:

Step-1: Before collar joint, cut excess part of upper front part and lower band part with keeping sufficient allowance.

Step-2: Then start stitching to match the box plate with the collar band according to allowance. Now attach a size label at the mid-position of the collar with an ending back stitch.

Step-3: Now fold the joint part of the collar and body and stitch at top with back tack. Then complete top stitching to the button plate with back tack.

Collar join
Collar join

Cuff joint with sleeve:

Below process to be followed for cuff joint with sleeve-

Step-1: Larger part of left sleeve opening set below pressure feet.

Step-2: One or two taken positioning at a cut marked place.

Step-3: According to the cut mark, a small part of the left sleeve opening is inserted into the cuff to set in the sewing machine.

Step-4: Take pressure feet down and start/end stitching with required back-tack.

Step-5: Right sleeve assembling to do above procedures accordingly.

Shirts’s bottom hem join
Shirts’s bottom hem join

Bottom hem stitching: 

The bottom hem is the lower part of clothing. The bottom hem folded according to measurement and stitching accordingly.

Below procedures to be followed to bottom hem stitching-

Step-1: Lower edge of button plate fold according to the measurement and set into a sewing machine.

Step-2: Start stitching with back-tack. Keep folding according to the actual measurement and stitching up to the edge of the box plate with a back-tack. 

Garment checking

Self-check:

Question sheet:

  1. Describe a cuff joining procedure with sleeves.
  2. What is at the bottom of them?
  3. Describe the back part and yoke joining procedure.
  4. Describe the upper placket and lower placket joint placement.
  5. What type of guides are used to topstitching of the collar joint body?

Answer sheet:

  1. Describe a cuff joining procedure with sleeves.

Answer: The larger part of left sleeve opening set below pressure feet. One or two taken positionings at a cut-marked place. According to the cut mark, a small part of the left sleeve opening is inserted into the cuff to set in the sewing machine. Take pressure feet down and start/end stitching with required back-tack.

  1. What is at the bottom of them?

Answer: The bottom hem is the lower part of clothing. The bottom hem folded according to measurement and stitching accordingly.

  1. Describe the back part and yoke joining procedure.

Answer: Keep the inner (lower) part straight inside between two parts of the yoke. Put the back part onto it. Then put another yoke part on it to start stitching.

  1. Describe the upper placket and lower placket joint placement.

Answer: 

Lower placket joint with sleeve (Gamble): Insert a small portion of the left sleeve opening into the opening side of the lower placket and set it onto the machine for sewing. Now sewing starts and ends with backstitching. Simultaneously, attach a lower placket with the right sleeve as above steps and stitching accordingly.

Upper placket joint with sleeve: Larger portion of left sleeve opening insert into the opening of upper placket. Start sewing with back stitching and stop stitching at corner position with needle downward. Then take-up pressure feet and turn the job in an accurate position. Take down pressure feet. Now, start sewing as above, corner stitching and stop sewing a placket house. As like above procedure, perform upper placket joint with right sleeve.


Chapter-12

Machine SOP

Information sheet

  1. Check Needle is ok or not
  1. Turn on machine power
  2. For manual machine keep the paddle in the backside for 20-30 seconds before starting the motor
  3. Check the bobbin and bobbin case
  4. Sew the test fabric
  1. Check the thread tension & SPI ok or not
  1. Start sewing
  2.  If leaving the job or machine, please turn it off
  3.  Switch off the power of the machine after completion of work. Needle position will be under pressure foot with fabric or paper
  4.  Clean the machine after finishing the job and cover it.

Chapter-13

Final evaluation


Above this module we can learn about how to prepare a sewing operator training module and step-by-step guidelines how to accomplish sewing operator tarining successfully. Sewing operator operates sewing machines in garment and textile industry. To know about sewing machine, Click here to learn more about sewing machine

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