In general, There are two type of fabrics need to inspect during fabric manufacturing.
- Greige fabric inspection
- Final fabric inspection
GREIGE FABRIC INSPECTION PROCEDURE:
Shell Fabric inspection:
Greige fabric inspection process defined as a system of visual assessment through an inspection machine to detect and identify the knitting faults in the fabric produced by a Circular Knit Machine.
Collar & Cuff inspection:
Expected quality verification of Collar and Cuff fabric produced in Flat Knit Machine is called collar cuff inspection.
Operational Staff : Quality Inspector
Equipment: Three inspection machine
Calator (Sweden) = 02
Machine Craft = 01
- 4 Point system
- visual inspection
To maintain operational safety following instruction has to be assured by the Supervisor.
- Operators use musk.
- Operator must use rubber sole shoe.
- Use the tight and cotton dress.
Inspection Plan & Execution.
- The responsible inspection Supervisor should prepare the daily Inspection plan according to the delivery schedule and allocate the inspector with Job/ style to do the inspection.
- Responsible Quality Inspector should check the Inspection machines, tools & equipment conditions and availability and fabric produced for Inspection.
Inspection must carry on with 4 point system but has to cover 100% produced greige as per Memo: Ref. UG/ HO/ OM/ 2004/ 26, dated October28, 2004.
A fabric roll is cut from the circular Knit machine & following information needed to put by permanent marker
Operator’s name & Card number
Yarn lot, manufacturer name
All rolls are kept in front of the inspection machine time to time and visually inspected by the Greige Inspection Machine in a preset speed (meter / minutes) against light. For any major or minor defect like Thick & Thin, Barre mark, set off, Contamination, Fly, Oil mark, Needle line, Slub, etc. are recorded in Greige Inspection Report and classify the fabric based on points.
For Collar and Cuff inspection respective Machine Operator (flat knit) should conduct Inspection themselves and Inspector from Quality Dept. will audit randomly to the report and give Signature on the report as acceptance.
The respective Inspector should record all information (roll no, length, height, weight, color, quantity etc.) of Inspected roll in Inspection sheet Roll number should be written in the edge of fabric.
Point allocation for defects:
Following Table shows the four Point Grading System for Greige Inspection at UKDL.
Point calculation according to defect sizes:
|Size of Defect||Points|
|3” inch or less||1|
|>3 and <6 inch||2|
|>6 inch <9 inch||3|
Fabric defects point calculation
Up to 10 points = Grade A
Up to 10-20 points= Grade B
Up to 20-30 points = grade C
Above 30 points = rejected 7 subject to decision.
- GSM of greige after 3rd wash must be checked in QC lab, report of which to be attached. (Ref. UG/ HO/ OM/2004/26, dated October 28, 2004).
- Stitch length before wash to be mentioned as well on the report. (Ref. UG/ HO/ OM/ 2004/ 26, dated October28, 2004).
- After 200kg production, the Greige must be inspected by the Central Quality Audit team for approval to go ahead with bulk production. (Ref. UG/ PIRM/ SOP/ 007/ 14, date 9th December2014).
Major defects, reason of defects and solution are given below:
|1.||Slubs||Caused in Spinning mills being spun into the yarn in the spinning process||Yarn must be inspected before production so that there is no uneven issue.|
|2.||Neps||It looks like a peeling of the yarn which density is more than original fabric. Usually this is found in fleece fabric due to excess feed%.||Yarn must be inspected before production and the percentage of feed and percentage of take up must be equal.|
|3.||Thick & Thin||Usually caused in spinning process for which yarn gets uneven. Thick yarn is 50% greater than normal yarn and thin is 50% less than normal yarn.||Use defect-less yarn.|
|4.||Hairiness||Fibers come out from Yarn called hairiness.||Yarn must be checked before production.|
|5.||Hole||It is a common problem in Knitting process. The main reason is defective and broken Needle. Also occurs due to yarn less strength.||Yarn tension must be corrected and remove defective yarn.|
|6.||Yarn Contamination||Various materials coming from cotton is mixed at the time of yarn production.||Yarn must be inspected before production.|
|7.||Fly Yarn||This is happened for the friction of different parts of Knitting machine.||Minimize the friction point as much as possible in Knitting machine.|
|8.||Barre Mark/Stripe||This problem is occurred for Cylinder labeling and inappropriate yarn tension.||Put correct tension during Knitting process and level the cylinder.|
|9.||Needle Line||For defective needle or Grooves or inaccurate Cylinder Needle may occur.||Clean machine Grooves and remove defective yarns.|
|10.||Sinker Mark||If Knitting Sinker shrink or due to movement of sinker. If program remains same but yarn brand / lot is different. Also sinker mark comes from defective sinker, used sinker, mixed brand sinker and dust jam in sinker group.||Broken sinker must be removed from Knitting machine and used to well brand sinker.|
|11.||Oil Mark||If oil leaked in Knitting machine or nozzle of Dyeing machine, this problem occur.||Oil should be given correctly.|
|12.||Lycra missing||Usually this problem is occurred in Lycra fabric. When Knitting process run if the direction of Lycra is changed this problem occur. Also due to bad quality lycra it is happened.||Make the tension right always and check line of lycra.|
|13.||Design Fault||If the needle of Knitting machine is not fixed properly this problem occur. Usually it happened for lack of awareness of Knitting Operator||Check the settings of needle are right or not.|
|14.||Stripe Measurement||It is occur in Auto stripe fabric. If the counting of stripe length is not correct this problem occurred.||Check measurement of stripe before Knitting that how much stripe is need.|
|15.||Wheel Mark||If the wheels of Knitting machine are move freely, it is occur.||Check Every wheel of Knitting Machine.|
|16.||Drop Stitch||If loops are not equally organized.||Defective needle should be remove from machine|
|17.||Patta||It comes due to use various count yarn or mixing yarn lot.||Should use same yarn Lot and same count of yarn.|
|18.||Pine Hole||Generally this problem occurs due to decomposed needle or variation of yarn tension, weak yarn, strong yarn cone, unsmooth yarn creel guide.||Check parameter is ok or not.|
|19.||Crease Mark||Usually this is found in Lycra fabric. If fabric kept in scattered this is occur.||Fabric kept in a uniform way like rolling or folding.|
|20.||Yarn mixed||Wrong Selection of yarn or wrong mixing of yarn this happened.||Load the yarn in machine very carefully.|
|21.||Edge Mark||This is happened when roller pressure of Knitting machine is not right.||Check Roller pressure is right or wrong.|
|22.||Wrong Slitting||For the lack of conscious of Machine operator it is happened.||Operator must be conscious.|
|23.||Dia Mark||For the lack of conscious of Machine operator it is happened.||Operator must be conscious.|
|24.||Drop Needle||For broken Needle||Operator must be conscious.|
|25.||Dead Cotton||For damaged yarn||Use Quality Yarn.|
|26.||Foreign Yarn fly||Occur for dust or dirty floor.||Floor should be Clean all time.|
- Applicable Forms and Documents:
- Every day Shell fabric Inspection report
- Every day Collar& Cuff inspection report
- Roll Number and Coding Sheet
- Internal Challan to Knitting and Greige store
- Job card
- Monthly Summary report
Final Fabric Inspection
- Inspection Frame: The frame should be equipped with a variable speed drive, a yard counter, a under carriage light to see through the construction and an overhead light to inspect the face of the fabric.
- Inspection Speed: The frame should be capable of running up to 30 yards per minute and should have both forward and reverse controls.
- Viewing distance: The inspection should be performed from an observation distance of 2 to 4 feet so as to get full vision of the fabric width.
- Lighting: Overhead cool white florescent (CWF) lighting is recommended for the inspection. The surface illumination level s should be a minimum of 1000 lux.
- Light Box & Color
Each factory should have an international light box equipped with:
Light Source Light Type
Primary Light Source D 65 (6500k)
Second Light Source TL 84 (4100k)
- The light box must be in close conditioned room with no interference from outside light.
- Measuring Tape
- Defect Stickers/Tag
- Selvedge Defect Flags
- Inspection Forms
- Approved Lab dip from buyer / Merchandising
- Required quality parameters sheet for fabric from buyers end.
- Physical color swatch for Lab dip must be 3”x 3” size for reference.
- Lab dip must produce 4 pcs each 4.5”x 4.5” size.
- A copy of Delta ‘E’ & visual ‘E’ report send to the Quality Lab for their reference.
Fabric Shade Check:
- In Application lab there are lights available in the Light box are light TV85, D65, and UV3000 etc. to check the fabric shade.
- Batch to batch shade, running; shade in a batch should be check during visually using light box by the inspector during dyeing production.
- Each and every visual report should be submitted to the Head of Quality and Unit Head as well for their decision.
- Color Standard: Check the head end sample in the light box against the fabric reference sample under D65 and TL84 light source whichever available. This should be done once for each color inspected.
- Shading within the roll: Check for shading at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of each roll inspected, using the dead-end sample for comparison
* Side to center
* Side to side
* End to end
- Color continuity Card: Check for color consistency between the rolls. Cut a small sample (about 2x2inches) from the left side, the center and the right side of each inspected roll and attached to the color continuity card. Check the sample against the fabric reference sample. Note any significant variation of shade from roll to roll.
- Fabric Width: Measure the cut able width at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of every roll. If a variation in cut able width is found, the factory will determine if the fabric is usable and if a replacement is necessary. At this point, the inspector should also check the condition of the selvedge. The selvedges should lay flat, be free of tension, and should not have a tendency to curl.
Roll Length: Measure and record the length of each roll inspected.
Inspection of Defects
Start the frame and inspect for defects. Run the frame at 20 + 5 yards per minute. If a defect is observed:
- Classify the defect and assign the appropriate points based on the severity of the defect. The severity is determined by the type and the length of the defect.
- Mark the defect at the selvage and/or at the defect.
- Record the defect and the assigned points on the inspection worksheet.
- 4 point Inspection System :
The 4 Point System is named form a basic grading rule: regardless of length/size or number of defects, no more than 4 penalty points may be assigned on any linear meter/yard.
Defects and Penalty Points
Defects should be marked with a colored sticker. To show defect position the selvage should be marked with the same color of sticker or thread.
Defects in both warp/weft directions will be assigned points using the following criteria:
|Defect length||Points||Sticker color|
|Less than 3″||1||White|
|3″ - 6″||2||Green|
|6″ - 9″||3||Yellow|
Fabric defect point system
|Less than 1″||2||Green|
|Larger than 1″||4||Red|
Fabric defects 4 point system
- Acceptance Calculation:
Total Point per 100 Sq. Yards
Actual points counted 36
=————————————- X———————- X100= Points/100 sq. yards.
Actual Roll Length Actual Width
20 points = Grade A
20-30 Points = Grade B
30-40 Points = Grade C
Above = Reject
- Point Grading System:
|1||Oil Stain 0-5 mm. Diameter5.1 -10 mm. Diameter10 mm above|
1 point2 point4 point
|2||Band Line||4 point|
|3||SlubUp to 10 mm.Above 10mm.|
2 point4 point
|4||Fly/ Yarn||1 point|
|5||Maximum Penalty points for any running yds. (36”Xfabric width) must not be more than 4 points.||4 point|
|6||For Every hole or many hole in a place count 4 point||4 point|
|7||Yarn contaminationUp to 50” Above 50”|
1 point2 point
|8||Naps||1 point or discussion with QC manager.|
|9||Crease Mark||Reject or discuss with QA Manager and take decision|
|10||Uneven Shade||Major fabric width in uneven will be reprocess and for minor discuss with QC Manager|
|11||Needle line is get up to tolerance||Reject or discuss with QA Manager and take decision|
|12||Dead cotton/ Hairiness||Reject or Re process|
|13||Patches||Reject or reprocess|
|15||Crumple Mark||Usually reprocess |
|16||Water DropUp to 5 mm. Diameter10 mm. DiameterAbove 10 mm. Diameter|
1 point2 point4 point
|17||Dye resist:Up to 5 mm. Diameter10 mm. DiameterAbove 10 mm. Diameter|
1 point2 point4 point
|18||Dye Stain:Up to 5 mm. Diameter10 mm. DiameterAbove 10 mm. Diameter|
1 point2 point4 point
|19||Dye Mark:Up to 5 mm. Diameter10 mm. DiameterAbove 10 mm. Diameter|
1 point2 point4 point
Fabric defect point system
- FABRIC FLAGGING WITH STICKER
After visual inspection fabric flagging with stickers is done as follows:
- Large 4 – point major faults in either length or width wise should be flagged with arrow marked sticker in the right hand side of the fabric.
- More than 2 – point defects should be flagged.
- Holes, Stains and soils should be flagged.
- Flags should be clearly visible when the fabric is spread face up or face down.
- Flags should not be detached from the fabric during transportation and handling by any means.
The rolls can be composed of maximum two splices and the minimum length of each splice should not be less than 20 meter.
- BOWS, BIAS AND SKEWS
Up to 100 cm width of fabric, a maximum of 2 cm bows, bias or skew is acceptable.
Generally any piece of fabric with less than 20 points fault per 100 square yard is allowed to pass however for a roll; the average value should not exceed 40 points per 100 square yard. More than 40 points fault per 100 square yard is recorded as reject.
Fabric is rejected in case of the followings:
- Any roll having a running or repeating defect through more than three continuous meters shall be rejected regardless of point count.
- Big tear is rejected.
- Dark crease is rejected.
- Fabric with more than 1″ short in width is rejected. If the shrinkage is within the range, the fabric should be returned to finishing department for correction of width.
- MACHINE & AREA CLEANING
The inspector is responsible for maintaining the overall cleanliness of the Nazer Inspection machine so that the fabric remains clean during the inspection process.
The Maintenance department performs machine maintenance as per the PM Schedule. Refer to the Maintenance Specification (Document No. 31-101) for details.
Cleaner cleans the floor several times a day or whenever necessary.
- APPLICABLE FORMS & DOCUMENTS
- Forms & Documents Used
Following forms are used for Finished Fabric Inspection process:
- Batch Card
- Finished Fabric Inspection Form
- Fabric (Dyed) Inspection Report
- Finished Fabric Weight Sheet
- Reprocess Card
- Identification Sticker
- Shrinkage Control Report
- Roll to Roll Shade Continuity Card
- Waste/Rejection Receiving Slip
After the inspection process the complete lot will go to finish fabrics store to final delivery in
cutting and store deliver the lots on basis of quality control inspection report.
- Quality representative from Garments unit must cross examine the report and give his clearance to release the fabric.
- Fabric must carry the Quality report with unit Head Signature. Without Quality report store cannot make any delivery challan for the fabric.
- Inspection report must presence at least one tear in fabric mill.
- All sorts of sample are swatch must reserve in Quality Dept. next one year.
Major defects, reason of defects and solution are given below:
|1.||Slubs||Usually caused by fly waste yarn being spun into the yarn in the spinning process||Yarn must be inspected before production.|
|2.||Neps||It looks like a peeling of the yarn which density is more than original fabric. Usually this found of the flesh fabric||Yarn must be inspected before production and the percentage of feed and percentage of take up must be equal.|
|3.||Thick & Thin||Usually caused in spinning process and get uneven yarn. Thick yarn is 50% greater than original yarn and thin is 50% less than yarn.||Use defect less yarn|
|4.||Hairiness||Small pitch of fiber that is come out from Yarn called hairiness.||Yarn must be checked before production.|
|5.||Hole||It is a common problem in Knitting process. The main reason for this problem is broken Needle or defective needle.||Observed the tension of yearn is ok or not and remove the defective yarn.|
|6.||Yarn Contamination||If the various dust is mixed at time of yarn production this problem occurred.||Yarn must be inspected before production.|
|7.||Fly Yarn||This is happened for the fixation several times in several places in parts of Knitting machine.||Minimize the hitting point in Knitting machine.|
|8.||Barre Mark/Stripe||This problem is occurred for Cylinder labeling and mismatch of yarn tension.||Put the correct tension value in Knitting process.|
|9.||Needle Line||For the defective needle or Grooves or defect of Cylinder Needle this problem will occur.||Clean the Grooves and removes the defective yarn.|
|10.||Sinker Mark||This problem occurs to use defective sinker or dust jamming in sinker.|
|11.||Oil Mark||If the oil leakage from the noggle of Knitting and Dyeing machine, this problem occur.||Put oil in right way|
|12.||Lycra missing||Usually this problem is occurred in Lycra fabric. When Knitting process run if the direction of Lycra is change this problem occur.||Check the tension of machine is ok or not.|
|16.||Drop Stitch||It is caused by malfunctioning loop or jack.||Defective needle should be remove from machine|
|17.||Patta||If use various count yarn or mixing the yarn lot this problem happened.||Should use same yarn Lot and same count of yarn.|
|24.||Dia Mark||Due to ignorance of Knitting operator.|
|25.||Pine Hole||Generally this problem occurs for malfunctioning of needle or mismatch of yarn tension, weak yarn, uneven yarn, wrinkle etc.||Check parameter is ok or not.|
|26.||Chain Tara/ Star Mark||For defective needle or defective sinker a star mark is drop in fabric.||Remove defective needle and Sinker.|
|27.||Sinker Mark||Usually it is occur when movement of Sinker of Knitting Machine is not right or defective Sinker, old Sinker, Mix brand Sinker are used or dust jam in sinker||Defective or broken Sinker removed from the machine, and use prominent brand sinker.|
|28.||Design Fault||If the needle of machine is not setting correctly in Knitting machine this problem occur. Usually lack of awareness of Knitting Operator it happened.||Check the settings of needle are right or not.|
|29.||Stripe Measurement||It is occur in Auto stripe fabric. If the measurement of stripe length is not correct this problem occurred.||Check measurement of stripe before Knitting is ok or not.|
|30.||Wheel Mark||If the wheels of Knitting machine are move freely, it is occur.||Check Every wheel of Knitting Machine.|
|31.||Crease Mark||Usually this is found in Lycra fabric. If fabric kept in here and there this is occur.||Fabric kept in a uniform way like rolling or folding.|
|32.||Yarn mixed||Wrong Secretion of yarn or wrong mixing of yarn this happened.||Load the yarn in machine very carefully.|
|33.||Edge Mark||This is happened when roller pressure of Knitting machine is not right.||Check Roller pressure is right or wrong.|
|34.||Wrong Slitting||For the lack of conscious of Machine operator it is happened.||Operator must be conscious.|
|35.||Dia Mark||For the lack of conscious of Machine operator it is happened.||Operator must be conscious.|
|36.||Drop Needle||For broken Needle||Operator must be conscious.|
|37.||Dead Cotton||For damaged yarn||Use Quality Yarn.|
|38.||Foreign Yarn fly||Occur for dust or dirty floor.||Floor should be Clean all time.|
- If the chemicals are not mixing in cold or hot water
- If various chemicals neither are nor mixed up properly.
- If the Solidity of water has not acceptable limit.
- If the Caustic Soda laid in Greige Fabric directly.
- Any chemical agent of antifoam is used in Turquois bath.
- If the color are not mixing in cold or hot water.
- Mix properly after putting leveling agent or dye dosing.
- If the filtering system is not ok Dye Stain occurs.
- Keep very careful at the time of Dye Dosing.
- Softener Spot/ Stain:
- In the time of Softener Dosing is not melted properly.
- If Bath temperature is less than required or acceptable temperature.
- Clean properly the foam that lay in Dyeing machine.
- Oil Stain:
If dyeing machine keep in open air in a long time not clean the oil since Dyeing.
- Dirty Spot:
- If Fabric kept in open air and dirty or dust is laid in Fabric.
- Uneven Shade:
If color, Caustic soda are not melted properly.
The dosing time of color and soda is minimum.
- Hand Feel:
If the Softener is not work properly.
- Strength Less:
If the Chemical Enzyme is used more than acceptance limit.
If not deactivated the action of Enzyme and kept the fabric in wet condition.
Recap the striping , strength length occur.
- Roll to Roll Shade Variation:
Since preparing of Batch different roll of fabric is assembled then it is occur.
- Fabric Damage:
If maximum Chemical Enzyme is used or maximum striping in time of dyeing this is occur.
- Color Bleeding:
When soaping if fabric not rinse properly color bleeding occur.
- Rub Mark:
When dyeing if grazed the fabric repeatedly through different parts of machine, Rub mark occur.
- Soda Spot:
Deactivation of Soda is not right this is occurring.
- Dyeing Crease:
- Anti-creasing agent of chemical is use minimum.
- If loading temperature is maximum.
- If temperature increase directly.
- Yellow Spot:
If the white fabric is kept in open air in wet condition this is occur.
|Defect Name||Reason of Defect||Solution|
|Finishing Crease Mark||In time of finishing a wrinkle or bent is laid in fabric.When unload from dyeing machine fabric left in a position for a long time then crease mark occurred.If water absorption is occur in Hydrostactor Machine for a long time then it happened. Spreader or Shape is not set in Padder in required Dia crease mark will occur. Width of fabric is not accurate in stanter Machine||Check all these are set in accurate measurement.|
|Dirty Spot||It may occur from Dust and dirty of finishing floor. Dirty comes from the carrying trolley.If the surface of machine is not clean that dust or dirt is laid in fabric.||Always clean finishing floor.Clean the trolley properly before carrying fabric.Clean machine surface before production.|
|Water Spot||During fabric drying if temperature not gives equally all over the fabric than occur.Water may come from steam source of compactor machine.||During drying temperature should be equal in all over.Observe the compactor machine so that water not arises from steam source.|
|Rust Stain||If any stain of Metal Oxidation laid in fabric that is called Rust Stain.If Oxidization is occurring in metal trolley and wet fabric kept in that trolley than Rust stain happened. If any machine is Idle for a long time but run production that will be occur.If any machines repairs but not clean properly then rust stain occurs.||Clean trolley properly before Keep fabric in trolley.Clean all parts of machine before production. After repairing machine clean properly.|
|Wrong Slitting||Provide a Drop Needle in the fabric for open width but if the cutting is not done according to that needle line this problem arise.For unconscious and unskilled of operator.||Slitting must be done by skilled operator.|
|Lycra Damage||If heat-seal is done more than required temperature Lycra yarn burnt and cause Lycra damage.During heat is set in stenter if speed is less than standard this is occur.During Machine running, suddenly stopped then Lycra damage will be occur.||Check the temperature of Stenter Machine is right or wrong.The Speed of Stenter Machine should be accurate.|
|Bowing Mark||If the fabric is come uneven, twisted or Curly from the Compactor machine called Bowing Mark. If the setting of Compactor Machine (Overfeed, Compaction, Pressure, Tension) are not equal in every place bowing will be occur.If operate the Machine by unskilled operator.||If Bowing Mark occurs fabric set in Machine by the opposite direction so that Bowing Mark will be removed.Operate Machine by the skilled operator.|
|Softener Stain||If chemical of softener is not mixed properly.If Softener is used more than required.||Mixing softener accurately and use as required.|
|Hole||Hole may be occurring for the scrubbed with various parts (pin of chain or broken parts of machine) and fabric.If the chain of Stenter Machine is run in the middle of the fabric either selvedge of fabric, it happens.||Operator must check the position of chain.Observe fabric is not rub with broken parts of machine.|
|Wheel Mark||If the pressure of Padder is high it is happenIf the wheel of Slitting Machine not run properly.||During De-water pressure of Padder set accurately.Observed the wheel of Slitting machine is right or not.|
|Grease Spot||Grease oil is used in various parts of Machine like bearing, Gear box. If that Grease is laid in fabric called Grease Mark.||Clean Machine properly after using Grease.|
|Oil Mark||If the oil that are used in various parts of Machine laid in fabric cause oil mark||Clean Machine properly after using Oil.|
|Shining Mark||The pressure of roller of padder or Compactor is high or not standard shining mark occurs.||Observe that fabric is not rubbed with Retard Roll and Blade. Observe that Calendar roll is not rubbed with Blankel and Teflon roll.|
|Insect Spot||During inspection if any insect fall in fabric this is occur.||Take protection so that insect are not fall in fabric.|
|Slanting||During finishing if fabric is sloping or angled by course wise called Slanting.|